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ABUSU ZIBERNETIKOA HITZORDUETAN: BIKTIMIZAZIO MOTA BERRI BAT ARO DIGITALEAN

June 6 th, 2022

June 6 th, 2022

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Anabel Cerezo Domínguez

 

Full professor in Criminal Law and Criminology

University of Malaga (Spain)

Biography: Anabel Cerezo (Zaragoza, Spain, 1969) received her M.S. and Ph.D. in Criminal Law and Criminology in 1992 and 1998, respectively, from the University of Malaga (Spain). Since 1993, she joined the Criminal Law Department at the University of Malaga, where she is Full Professor.  She was Fulbright Visiting Postdoc at the School of Criminal Justice, Rutgers University, Newark (U.S.) and Visiting Researcher at the Institute of Criminology, Cambridge (U.K.), at the Faculty of Law, Queensland University of Technology, Brisbane (Australia), at the Institute of information Sciences and Electronics, Tsukuba University (Japan) and at the Leuven Institute of Criminology (Belgium).  Professor Cerezo is currently Director of Institute of Criminology in University of Malaga, where it will be held the next ESC Conference in September 2022. She has been President of the Spanish Society of Criminology (SEIC) and former member of the European Society of Criminology (ESC) or the International Society of Criminology executive boards. Her areas of research and specialisation span the subjects of victimology, prisons, domestic violence, cybercrime, criminal policy, crime prevention and drugs. She has authored and co-authored several books and journals and published well over fifty papers in conference proceedings.

Abstract:

Cyber Dating Abuse is a quite new topic in the academic world. Criminal behaviours using electronic devices are occurring between adolescents whose relationships are characterized by dating affection or sexual involvement. The main goal of this theoretical research on the state of the art is to expand knowledge about the types of violence and abuse that adolescents experience by the use of technology (eg. social network sites, texting or smartphones) and the consequences of such cyber abuse within teen dating relationships. Based on an overview of research studies, the prevalence of the phenomenon as well as the explanatory variables will be taken into account. The review aims to focus more closely on the gender-based violence behaviours in juvenile relationships. The key to cyber teen dating abuse prevention is to intervene early as well as to increase awareness among parents and teachers.

TEKNOLOGIAK ERRAZTUTAKO ABUSUAREN IRISMENA, IZAERA ETA INPAKTUAK

June 6 th, 2022

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Asher Flynn

 

Criminology, School of Social Sciences

Monash University

June 6 th, 2022

Asher Flynn

 

Criminology, School of Social Sciences

Monash University

Biography: Dr Asher Flynn is an Associate Professor of Criminology in the School of Social Sciences at Monash University and Vice President of the Australian and New Zealand Society of Criminology. She is a leading international researcher in policy and prevention concerning gendered and sexual violence, and AI and technology-facilitated abuse. Asher has an extensive publication record and is lead researcher on several major international projects in these fields, including an ANROWS project examining the prevalence, harms and responses to technology-facilitated abuse across Australia. She is the recipient of a number of prestigious international research fellowships for her work on sexual violence and has held high-level advisory positions with the United Nations, the British Home Office and the Australian Office of the eSafety Commissioner. Asher is the Australian representative on the Facebook Women’s Safety Expert Advisory Board and a founding member of the Rape & Sexual Assault Research & Advocacy Initiative. Her substantial individual and collaborative body of work in this area includes seven books and approximately 60 peer-reviewed publications. For more information, see: https://research.monash.edu/en/persons/asher-flynn.

Abstract:

Technology-facilitated abuse is a growing problem. The rapid advancement and commercialisation of digital technologies has meant tools to abuse, track, monitor and harass others no longer require the same technological expertise or knowledge to cause harm. Cyber abuse, including sexual harassment, gender and sexuality-based hate and dating abuse is becoming even more common as we immerse ourselves further into online forms of communication and connection. This can be seen in the emerging evidence showing an increase in technology-facilitated abuse during the social isolation measures introduced during the COVID-19 pandemic, partially in response to the changing social, economic and relational environments it created. But there is still so much we do not know about technology-facilitated abuse. This paper presents findings from a project funded by Australia’s National Research Organisation for Women’s Safety (ANROWS), with support from the Australian Government Department of Social Services, on the extent, nature and impacts of technology-facilitated abuse. The paper will specifically discuss the first reliable nationally representative prevalence data of self-reported victimisation and perpetration of technology-facilitated abuse across Australia, as well as findings from qualitative interviews conducted with victims and perpetrators of multiple forms of technology-facilitated abuse.

DIZIPLINARTEKOTASUNA GORTEAN: BIKTIMOLOGIA HOLISTIKA BATERAKO BIDEAN, ZUZENBIDEAN ETA PSIKOLOGIAN

June 7th, 2022

Dialogue between José Luis de la Cuesta & Enrique Echeburúa

Biography:  Obtained his Law Degree at Law Faculty of San Sebastián in1977, being distinguished with the Second Spanish National Prize (Law). In 1979, he equally obtained the High Diploma in Criminology at University Complutense of Madrid.  He is Doctor in Law of the University of the Basque Country (1981: Extraordinary Prize of the Law Faculty). He visited several foreign institutions with a post-doctoral research purpose: in France (Université de Pau et des Pays de l'Adour), in the UK (University of Edinburgh), in Belgium (Université Catholique de Louvain), and, particularly, at the Max-Planck Institut (Freiburg, Germany, 1982-1983). Further research visits to DePaul University (Chicago, U.S.A., 1994), and to the Center for Judicial Studies & National Judicial College, University of Reno (2002) can also be underlined.  He is Honorary President of the International Association of Penal Law (AIDP), after having served as President from 2004 to 2014. In 2009, he received the Euskadi Prize of Research in Social Sciences and Humanities. He has been awarded Doctorate honoris causa by three Universities: the University Alexandru Ioan Cuza (Iasi, Romania: 2011); the University of Huánuco (Peru: 2017); and the Autonomous University of Peru (Lima, Peru: 2019).  He is also Honorary Member of the Basque Society of Victimology.He has published 3 individual books; 6 collective books; 128 contributions to collective books; 96 Articles in scientific reviews. His website is located a www.ehu.eus/joseluis.delacuesta

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José Luis de la Cuesta

Professor of Criminal Law. University of the Basque Country (UPV/EHU) Spain

Director of the Basque Institute of Criminology

Director of the Research Group GICCAS (Basque Government, IT 1372-19)

Enrique Echeburúa

Professor of Clinical Psychology. University of the Basque Country (UPV/EHU), Spain.

Research Director of Clinical and Health Psychology Program at the University of the Basque Country University (UPV/EHU), Spain

Biography: Enrique Echeburúa (born 1951 in San Sebastián, Spain) has been a Professor of Clinical Psychology at the University of the Basque Country (UPV/EHU) since 1979. He received his B.A. in Psychology from the Complutense University of Madrid in 1973 and his Ph.D. in Psychology from the Complutense University of Madrid in 1978. He was a founder member of the Basque Institute of Criminology in 1978 and he is past president of the Basque Society of Victimology (2004-2008).  He has been the director of the research team in Clinical and Health Psychology at the University of the Basque Country since 2011. His publications include more than 530 papers and book chapters, as well as 35 books, mostly in the areas of anxiety disorders, gambling disorder, sexual aggression and violence. His current research is focused on intimate partner violence (psychological treatment of victims and perpetrators) and on violence risk assessment and management, as well as on behavioral addictions.  He has lectured extensively around the world and is the recipient of several awards (e.g. the Euskadi Research Prize 2017 in the field of Social Sciences and Humanities) related to research contribution. He has been a senior member of the Basque Academy of Sciences, Arts and Humanities since 2012. His website is located at www.enriqueecheburua.com. His email is enrique.echeburua@ehu.eus

Abstract:

 

Despite the calls for interdisciplinarity in victimological science and practice, the criminal justice system continues to be fragmented in many ways. Even if the Directive 2012/29/EU of the European Parliament and of the Council of 25 October 2012 establishing minimum standards on the rights, support and protection of victims of crime, in line with the UN international standards on victims’ rights, demands integral protection for victims and inter-professional coordination, the reality in many jurisdictions is that many victims keep being seen as instrumental in the criminal process causing them further secondary victimization, as the 2019 EU Fundamental Rights Agency study on victims of violent crimes has recently underlined. At the same time, there is a risk of converting the victims in pathological objects for psychological intervention by concentrating on individual victims without considering broader social and justice aspects. Concrete proposals to achieve a better collaboration among jurists and psychologists, as well as other professionals, will be discussed in order to approach a more holistic understanding of the processes of victimization and recovery, including the consideration of digital advancements.

RESTORATIVE JUSTICE FOR VICTIMS OF TERRORISM: MERGING DIFFERENT PERSPECTIVES

June 7th, 2022

Dialogue between Barbara Dührkop (Graduate in humanities of the University of Uppsala, Sweden, and former teacher) & Pili Zabala (Graduate in odontology of the University of the Basque Country and teacher)  

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Bárbara Dührkop (born in Hanover, Germany) was until 2009 a Member of the European Parliament, where she was a Vice-Chair of the Socialist Group. Her husband Enrique Casas was assassinated by the Comandos Autónomos Anticapitalistas (CAA), a branch of ETA. Within a longitudinal research of the Basque Institute of Criminology (University of the Basque Country) and other platforms, she has participated in several restorative justice projects. She has also participated in school programs and European initiatives to engage students in issues related to human rights of victims of terrorism.

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Pili Zabala (born in Tolosa, Basque Country), former member of the Basque Parliament with Elkarrekin Podemos. The disappearance of her brother Joxi Zabala in 1983 marked her life; Joxi, an alleged member of ETA, was kidnapped, tortured and murdered by the GAL (state terrorism group). Since then, she became an activist for peace and reconciliation in the Basque Country. Within a longitudinal research of the Basque Institute of Criminology (University of the Basque Country) and other organisations, she has participated in several restorative justice and educative projects.

Laburpena:

Gaur egungo Euskal Herriko egoera abiapuntutzat hartuta, gure hizlariek Euskal Herrian terrorismoaren eta indarkeria politikoaren arloan egindako justizia errestauratiboko proiektuetan biktima gisa izan duten parte hartzeari buruzko ikuspegiak partekatuko dituzte. Biek parte hartu dute gaiari buruzko film dokumentaletan eta liburuetan. Justizia errestaruratiboan interes handia edukita, justizian eta sendatzean esku hartzen duten hainbat elementuren gaineko ikuspegi desberdinak eskainiko dizkigute, biktimologiaren ikuspegitik eta justizia errestauratiboaren testuinguruan. Planteatuko dute, zehazki, justizia errestauratiboa zenbateraino izan daitekeen eraldatzailea edo terapeutikoa, zein den barkamena eskatu eta ematearen esanahia horrelako prozesuetan, eta zein izan beharko lukeen memorializazio jardueran zeregina.

 

Gogoeta ikuspuntuak esperientzia errealekin, konplexutasunekin eta justizia errestauratiboaren askotariko elkarguneekin erkatzean, alderdi horiek sakontasunez eztabaidatu ahal izango dira, sinposioaren parte hartzaileekin batera. Nabarmendu behar dugu euskal proiektu errestauratiboek nazioarteko hainbat erakunde eta ikertzaileren interesa erakarri dutela; tartean daude, Justizia Errestauratiboko Europako Foroa, Erradikalizaziori buruzko Kontzientziazio Sarea (RAN) eta Topaketa Errestauratiboen (ERC) sare informala, zeinak 2019an Italia, Ipar Irlanda, Espainia, Belgika eta Israelgo terrorismoko eta indarkeria politikoko kasuen biktimak, delinkuente ohiak eta justizia errestauratiboko bideratzaileak elkartu baitzituen. Barbara Dührkop-ek eta Pili Zabalak sare eta erakunde horien jardueretan parte hartu izan dute.

GIZARTE LOTURAK: BIZI LERRO BAT, IZUGARRIKERIA KRIMENEN BIKTIMENTZAT

June 8 th, 2022

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David J Scheffer

 

Ambassador David J. Scheffer, Visiting Senior Fellow, Council on Foreign Relations, Clinical Professor Emeritus and Director Emeritus of the Center for International Human Rights, Northwestern University Pritzker School of Law

Biography: David J. Scheffer is the former U.S. Ambassador at Large for War Crimes Issues (1997-2001) and led the U.S. delegation in negotiations of the Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court and its supplemental documents.  He negotiated the creation of five war crimes tribunals during the 1990’s, was Senior Adviser and Counsel to the U.S. Permanent Representative to the United Nations from 1993 to 1997, and sat on the Deputies Committee of the National Security Council during that period.  Ambassador Scheffer was the U.N. Secretary-General’s Special Expert for U.N. Assistance to the Khmer Rouge Trials (2012-2018).  He was the Mayer Brown/Robert A. Helman Professor of Law at Northwestern University Pritzker School of Law (2006-2020) and is now Clinical Professor Emeritus and Director Emeritus of the law school’s Center for International Human Rights.  He is Professor of Practice at Arizona State University and in 2021 was Global Law Professor at KU Leuven.  Ambassador Scheffer is Vice-President of the American Society of International Law (2020-2022). He was the Tom A. Bernstein Genocide Prevention Fellow of the U.S. Holocaust Memorial Museum (2019-2021).  He received the Berlin Prize (2013), the Champion of Justice Award of the Center for Justice and Accountability (2018), and the Dr. Jean Mayer Global Citizenship Award of Tufts University (2020).  He authored All the Missing Souls: A Personal History of the War Crimes Tribunals (Princeton, 2012) and The Sit Room: In the Theater of War and Peace (Oxford, 2019).  He is a graduate of Harvard, Oxford, and Georgetown.

Abstract:

 

The address will focus on how the social bond market can be utilized to generate funding for the needs of victims of atrocity crimes: genocide, crimes against humanity, and war crimes.  Atrocity victims currently number in the tens of millions globally.  Addressing their essential demands—both in the long-term objective of justice and reparations and the short-term aim of assisting them with their economic, health, and habitat needs in the aftermath of atrocities—is a massively unfulfilled policy priority.  For several years momentum has built behind “humanitarian investing,” namely utilizing the private sector and attracting “social investors” for profitable (though often less than conventional market rate) investment opportunities that serve humanitarian aims and scale the funds needed to pursue them.  During the pandemic, the social bond market gained a firm and expanding foothold for worthy causes.  There are different types of social bonds to explore for humanitarian purposes.  The address proposes the issuance of social bonds, sometimes backed by sovereign, foundation, and corporate guarantees, to address the budgetary requirements of both small and large humanitarian organizations and criminal tribunals seeking to meet the needs of atrocity victims. 

BORTXAKETEN BIKTIMENTZAKO LEGE ORDEZKARITZA: HIRUGARREN SENTIKORREN FROGAK BABESTEA

June 8 th, 2022

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Mary Iliadis

 

Kriminologiako irakasle titularra, Deakin Unibertsitatea (Australia)

Biografia: Mary Iliadis Kriminologiako irakasle titularra da Deakin Unibertsitatearen Giza eta Gizarte Zientzien Fakultatean, eta emakumeen aurkako indarkeriari buruzko Deakin Ikerketa Zentroko presidenteordea. Mary-ren ikerketa estatuko eta nazioarteko testuinguruan kokatzen da, eta Ingalaterran, Galesen, Irlandan eta Australian egindako epaiketetan sexu indarkeriaren biktimei emandako babesak eta eskubideak arakatzen ditu. Maila orokorrago batean, Mary-k diskrezio poliziala eta fiskala aztertzen du, genero indarkeriari emandako erantzunetan, eta biktimek zigor auzien prozesuan parte hartzeko dituzten aukerak aztertzen ditu, genero indarkeriaren biktimen lege ordezkaritza barne hartuta.

June 8 th, 2022

David J Scheffer

 

Ambassador David J. Scheffer, Visiting Senior Fellow, Council on Foreign Relations, Clinical Professor Emeritus and Director Emeritus of the Center for International Human Rights, Northwestern University Pritzker School of Law

Laburpena:


Australiako eta nazioarteko ikerketek bortxaketen / sexu erasoen biktimek justizia penalaren sistemarekin duten konpromisoari eragiten dioten erronka prozesalak dokumentatu dituzte. Horien artean daude, besteak beste, ikerketen oinarrian dauden mitoak eta estereotipoak, auzipetzeak eta epaiketaren kontra-galdeketan, bereziki, biktima «zintzoak» eta «iruzurtiak» bereizi nahi dituzten defentsaren galdeketa intrusiboak.

Zigor epaiketetan biktimekiko hirugarrenen froga sentikorren erabilera mugatzeko lege saialdiak behin eta berriro egin badira ere, defentsako abokatuek oraindik horrelakoak erabiltzen dituzte biktimen sinesgarritasuna zalantzan jartzeko. Horren barruan sartzen da sexu aurrekariei eta erregistro pribatuei lotutako frogen erabilera, baita ohar medikoak eta aholkularitza ere; gauza bera komunikazio digitalei dagokienez, hala nola datu pribatuak dituzten telefono erregistroak.

Nazioartean, froga arauak murrizten saiatu dira, batetik, defentsak biktimen historial sexuala modu hutsal eta iraingarrian zalantzan jartzeko joera, eta, bestetik, froga pertsonalak, biktimen komunikazio pribatuetan oinarritutako frogak barne hartuta, baita aholkularitza erregistroak ere. Ostera, praktikan, froga horiek epaitegietan onartzen dira oraindik ere, biktimen lekukotza eta izaera ahultzeko oinarri gisa.

 

Dokumentu honek sexu delituen biktimen hirugarrenen froga sentikorrak are gehiago babesteko beharra aztertzen du, akusazio justiziaren prozesuetan lege ordezkari independente (ILR) bat sartuta. Nazioarteko erreforma ereduetan oinarrituta, non zenbait jurisdikzio kontraesankorretan sexu delituen biktimentzat ILRa dagoen, dokumentu honek deskribatzen du biktimaren ILRak zer modutan babes ditzakeen hobeto sexu delituen biktimen hirugarrenen froga sentikorrak, zigor epaitegietan, eta nola hobe daitekeen horrela haren justizia prozesala. Era berean, auzitegietan biktimen hirugarrenen froga sentikorren dibulgazioa saihesteko ILR bat sartzearen balizko onurak eta arriskuak aztertzen dira.

KRIMENAREN BIKTIMAK TXINAKO LANDA ETA HIRI EREMUETAN: EZKONTZA MAMUEN ETA P2P MAILEGUEN KASUAK

June 9 th, 2022

T Wing LO

 

Associate Vice-President (Student Affairs), City University of Hong Kong, Txina

Biografia: T Wing Lo irakasleak, Hong Kongen erregistratutako gizarte langilea zenak, doktoregoa lortu zuen Cambridge-ko Unibertsitatearen Kriminologia Institutuan, 1991ean. Gazte taldeekin lan egin zuen 17 urtez, eta Hong Kong-eko City University-n (CityU) sartu zen, 1990ean. Gizarte eta Portaeren Zientzietako Sailaren burua izan zen, eta orain presidenteorde elkartua da (ikasleen gaiak). Sari hauek irabazi ditu: Applied Research Excellence Award (2002), Teaching Excellence Award (2007) eta CityU-ren Excellence in Knowledge Transfer Award (2019). British Journal of Criminology-ren Nazioarteko Aholkularitza Kontseiluko kidea da, Youth Justice, Asian Journal of Community Justice eta British Journal of Community Justice aldizkarien argitalpen kontseiluko kidea, Routledge Studies in Asian Behavioral Sciences-eko argitaratzaile sortzailea, eta Asiako Kriminologia Elkartearen Batzar Nagusiaren presidenteordea izan da. Hainbat aldiz gonbidatu dute Nazioz Haraindiko Delinkuentzia Antolatuaren aurkako NBEren Palermoko Konbentziora (Nueva York, 2010) joandako ordezkariekin hitz egitera, baita Estatu Batuetako Defentsa Departamenduko funtzionarioekin ere (Washington DC, 2015). Argitalpen ugari egin ditu, eta berrienak honako hauek dira: Lo, TW. Siegel, D., & Kwok, SI (arg.). (2020) Krimen antolatua eta ustelkeria mugaz gaindi: Zerrendaren eta Bidearen ekimena arakatuz. Londres: Routledge; eta Liu, Z. eta Lo, T.W. (2020). Krimena ulertzea Txinako hiri eta landa ingurunetan: gizarte eta portaera ikuspegi bat. Londres: Routledge.

Laburpena:


Txina herrialde izugarri handia da, eta hango landa eta hiri eremuetan ematen diren delitu motak oso desberdinak dira. Landa eremuan, ezkontza mamuaren tradizioa antzinatik transmititu da. Folklorearen arabera, heldutasunera iristen eta ezkondu aurretik hiltzen diren gizonak edo emakumeak ezin dira lurperatu beren arbasoekin batera. Hil ondoko ezkontzaren ondoren, hildakoa bere arbasoekin lurperatu daiteke; bestela, basoan lurperatu eta mamu erratu bihurtuko litzateke. Ekonomiaren loraldiarekin batera, ohiturak ezkontza mamuen merkatu bat sortu du, eta horrek hilotzen komertzioa ekarri du. Irabaziak ikusita, kriminalak bahitzen, erailtzen, hilobiak lapurtzen, gorputegietatik hilotzak lapurtzen eta hilotzekin trafikatzen hasi dira.

 

Hiri eremuetan, ekonomiaren loraldian, aberatsenen taldeek inbertsio kanal berriak aurkitu dituzte. P2P maileguen plataforma eta enpresa asko eratu dira. Hasiera batean, mailegu emaileen eta hartzaileen arteko parekatzea kudeatzen dute. Praktikan, ordea, legez kanpoko jarduera asko identifikatu dira, hala nola interes tasa ikaragarri altuen erabilera, gordailugileak erakartzeko eta gordailuen erabilera desegokia egiteko, arrisku handiko inbertsioetan. Finantza jarduera okerrak izua eragin du bankuetan, eta kolapsoa enpresetan. Testuinguru horretan, delituen biktimak aztertuko dira, Txinako testuinguru soziokulturala berariaz aipatuta.